Political advertisers, mainly political parties, hope to get more efficient and effective services out those same technologies, for a fraction of the cost.

Reuters. Automation, Algorithms, and Politics | When Bots Tweet: Toward a Normative Framework for Bots on Social Networking Sites (Feature).

Instead, it is high time to include other legal areas into the discussion, and their role in addressing the effects from data analytics, including election, party financing laws, and media law. Jeff Chester and Kathryn Montgomery provide a much needed in depth insight into the current state of the industry that services political micro-targeting efforts in the US. More importantly, we appreciate and encourage initiative. Dipankar Sengupta and Sudhir Kumar Singh, Authors Press, 2004, pp.73-74. (2009). 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights). Forthcoming. It is the result of an international call for proposals, and subsequent international symposium held in Amsterdam on 22 September 2017. Powers, S. 2010. In this context, it can be useful to learn from the diversity of emerging (self)regulatory approaches and experimentations with new solutions in the European Union member states. The prevalence of qualitative approaches is especially limiting because PMT could easily lend itself to big data based quantitative research methods.

Data protection law, however, can only go so far to protect principles of universality, equality or freedom of the political, data-driven process. The authors introduce a framework of macro-, meso-, and micro level constraints that define the use, and usefulness of various PMT techniques in different countries. Parties, election campaigning, and the Internet: toward a comparative institutional approach. Trends in voter surveillance in western societies: privacy intrusions and democratic implications. Kreiss sees PMT as a technology that reflects, reinforces and amplifies the partisan conflicts at the heart of US politics, the political agonism, the clash of competing social groups, interests, and values in the binary US political sphere. make the first steps to outline the theoretical framework in which all factors that might affect local PMT applicability can be situated and assessed against each other. Political advertising is protected speech in the sense of Art.

Threats, such as the aforementioned Russian interference in the 2016 US presidential elections via social media suddenly turned PMT techniques into the most closely watched domains, where everyone, from the media via congressional committees to national security services seemed to be ready to monitor and regulate this space.

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