, The role of the RAD instrument is to characterize the broad spectrum of radiation environment found inside the spacecraft during the cruise phase and while on Mars. Here now is a rundown of the top five discoveries in the Curiosity's first year on Mars.  CheMin is one of four spectrometers. First-year and first-mile map of Curiosity's traverse on Mars (August 1, 2013) (3-D). NASA's Curiosity rover captured its highest-resolution panorama, including more than a thousand images and 1.8 billion pixels, of the Martian surface between November 24 and December 1, … Those sensitive devices allow measurement of movement and orientation in your phone, but in Curiosity they are turned up to 11, allowing scientists and engineers back on Earth plenty of data to orient and move the rover. , MAHLI is a camera on the rover's robotic arm, and acquires microscopic images of rock and soil.  The rover can drill samples from rocks and the resulting fine powder is poured into the instrument via a sample inlet tube on the top of the vehicle. , On August 5, 2017, NASA celebrated the fifth anniversary of the Curiosity rover mission landing, and related exploratory accomplishments, on the planet Mars.  The mission results will also help prepare for human exploration. In this artist's concept of NASA's InSight lander on Mars, layers of the planet's subsurface can be seen below and dust devils can be seen in the background. The crater spans approximately 100 feet and is surrounded by a large, rayed blast zone. Layers at the base of Aeolis Mons.  The rover's goals include an investigation of the Martian climate and geology; assessment of whether the selected field site inside Gale has ever offered environmental conditions favorable for microbial life, including investigation of the role of water; and planetary habitability studies in preparation for human exploration. The dark rock in inset is the same size as Curiosity.  The rover is still operational, and as of October 27, 2020, Curiosity has been on the planet Mars for 2924 sols (3003 total days) since landing on August 6th, 2012. Its primary purpose is to determine the viability and shielding needs for potential human explorers, as well as to characterize the radiation environment on the surface of Mars, which it started doing immediately after MSL landed in August 2012.  The LIBS instrument can target a rock or soil sample up to 7 m (23 ft) away, vaporizing a small amount of it with about 50 to 75 5-nanosecond pulses from a 1067 nm infrared laser and then observes the spectrum of the light emitted by the vaporized rock. , The DAN instrument employs a neutron source and detector for measuring the quantity and depth of hydrogen or ice and water at or near the Martian surface. , The MastCam system provides multiple spectra and true-color imaging with two cameras. MARDI imaging allowed the mapping of surrounding terrain and the location of landing. The InSight lander was imaged from above by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.  Malin also developed a pair of MastCams with zoom lenses, but these were not included in the rover because of the time required to test the new hardware and the looming November 2011 launch date.  The location was named Bradbury Landing on August 22, 2012, in honor of science fiction author Ray Bradbury. , Using the same collection optics, the RMI provides context images of the LIBS analysis spots. NASA's Curiosity rover captured its highest-resolution panorama, including more than a thousand images and 1.8 billion pixels, of the Martian surface between November 24 and December 1, 2019. The remaining mass was discarded in the process of transport and landing.  The paragonetic tephra from a Hawaiian cinder cone has been mined to create Martian regolith simulant for researchers to use since 1998. Curiosity is such a powerful force. It can identify and quantify the abundance of the minerals on Mars. Curiosity's first image after landing (August 6, 2012). No, it's just polar dunes dusted with ice and sand. "We're seeing an evolution in the ancient lake environment recorded in these rocks," said Valerie Fox, co-lead for the clay campaign at the California Institute of Technology. Thus, it is believed that the rover may have the opportunity to study two billion years of Martian history in the sediments exposed in the mountain. How a mountain came to be inside a crater still perplexes scientists, with some believing it may have been filled in with sediment which was slowly blown away over millions of years.  The APXS instrument takes advantage of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and X-ray fluorescence, previously exploited by the Mars Pathfinder and the two Mars Exploration Rovers. During its mission, Curiosity has encountered the most amount of clay minerals on Mount Sharp.  By December 9, driving and robotic arm operations were cleared to continue, but drilling remained suspended indefinitely.