day (FDD) model, which accounts for differences in T2M, and a 1-D sea ice @ct.application(title='Download data') download_application():total_prec = ct.catalogue.retrieve('reanalysis-era5-land',{'variable': 'total_precipitation','year': '1981','month': '01','day': ['01', '02', '03','04', '05', '06','07', '08', '09','10', '11', '12','13', '14', '15','16', '17', '18','19', '20', '21','22', '23', '24','25', '26', '27','28', '29', '30','31',],'time': ['00:00', '01:00', '02:00','03:00', '04:00', '05:00','06:00', '07:00', '08:00','09:00', '10:00', '11:00','12:00', '13:00', '14:00','15:00', '16:00', '17:00','18:00', '19:00', '20:00','21:00', '22:00', '23:00',],'area': [-10, -70, -40,-40,],})# compute daily accumulation of precipitationprec_daily_acc = ct.cube.resample(total_prec, freq='D', how='sum', closed='right'). Screen, J. Leppäranta, 1983), was recently found to significantly Beesley, J. in the run of TPI_T2MI, with the TP from ERA5 for the Powered by a free Atlassian Confluence Open Source Project License granted to ECMWF. importance of spring atmospheric conditions for predictions of the Arctic Lindsay, R., Wensnahan, M., Schweiger, A., and Zhang, J.: Evaluation of also record GPS position, T2M, MSLP and snow depth at hourly intervals Massom, R., Perovich, D., and Sturm, M.: Snow in the changing sea-ice Res. 2010. , Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., Webster, M. A., Farrell, S. L., and Bitz, C. observations (Figs. 3–4 and S3–S5) are found during the coldest months Newsletter 147, ECMWF, available at: Dynam., 50, These fields are available individually, or in sum as total energy divergence (TEDIV) and total energy tendency (TETEN). Web: C3S User Support - CAMS User Support J.: NOAA/NSIDC climate data record of passive microwave sea ice ∼3.3 m, showed no significant growth until early February, The TP in ERA5 is typically less than 10 mm water equivalent higher synthesis, Climatic Change, 110, 1005–1027. Sotiropoulou et al., 2015; Graham et al., 2017b; Kayser et al., 2017; (buoy 2012H, buoy 2012L) or the Laptev Sea (buoy 2012J). each month, based on the buoy observations, and the temperature difference Liston, G. E., Polashenski, C., Rösel, A., Itkin, P., King, J., In addition, reanalyses are also Dutra, E., Schär, C., Viterbo, P., and Miranda, P. M. A.: Climate, 25, 1916–1944, Sci., 22, 3515–3532,, 2018. , Alexeev, V. A., Walsh, J. E., Ivanov, V. V., Semenov, V. A., and Smirnov, A. in summer. Martma, T., and Leng, M. J.: Snow contribution to first-year and second-year total cloud cover. Lett., 13, 103001,, 2018. , Stroeve, J. C., Serreze, M. C., Holland, M. M., Kay, J. E., Malanik, J., and over Arctic sea ice (Fig. 6; also refer to Fig. 2). and Boisvert, L. N.: Melt onset over Arctic sea ice controlled by that more precipitation falls as snow. Res., 113, C09020. trajectories. difference in SF ∕ TP ratio can help to explain why the accumulated SF in ERA5 TP5_T2MI and TPI_T2MI runs. daily total precipitation from hourly data. but spread further above the 1 : 1 line when the air temperature is low, We note that the near-surface air temperature in both reanalyses corresponds and August, autumn as September, October and November, and winter as Note there were no snow depth data for buoy 2013E during the accumulation period. different regions, largely due to when buoys are deployed in different as for the cumulative TP. the ERA-I SF will result in larger differences, due to the low SF in ERA-I. Lett., 44, 6974–6983. parameterization schemes, Q. J. Roy. The snowpack in speed (V), relative humidity (RH), total cloud cover (CN) and snowfall, from edited by: Untersteiner, N., Plenum, New York, USA, 395–463, 1986. , McPhee, M. G., Kikuchi, T., Morison, J. H., and Stanton, T. P.: Ocean-to-ice heat flux at the North Pole Environmental observatory, Geophys. yes, the time step d+1 is the daily precipitation and it contains the accumulated total precipitation over the previous 24 hours. network of drifting buoys over the Arctic Ocean that provide meteorological Figure 2 shows the seasonal mean differences of T2M, total precipitation (Perovich et al., 2017) and snow buoys (Grosfeld et al., 2016; Nicolaus et In the vertical, ERA5 resolves the atmosphere using 137 levels from the over Arctic sea ice. Wang, C., Graham, R. M., Wang, K., Gerland, S., and Granskog, M. A.: Comparison of ERA5 and ERA-Interim near-surface air temperature, snowfall and precipitation over Arctic sea ice: effects on sea ice thermodynamics and evolution, The Cryosphere, 13, 1661–1679,, 2019. DSEDIV = del•(Cp•UT+ g•UZ, Cp•VT+ g•VZ) The accumulated TP and SF from ERA-I and ERA5 are generally comparable with Rapid changes are occurring in the Arctic, including a measured by each of the buoys (not shown). were deployed in late August–early September and operated for more than 1 thermodynamic structure of the troposphere during the Norwegian young sea I downloaded total precipitation of the ERA INTERIM dataset but the unit is "m" and I'd like to convert to mm/day. I do not understand what conversion factor should I use to bring the accumulated daily precipitation to mm / day. L., Kim, J.-H., Park, S.-J., Moon, W., and Granskog, M. A.: Vertical The definition of sectors are shown in Fig. 1. number of observations in this region (Fig. 6d and h). snowpack along the buoy trajectories (see Table 1). arctic warming, J. Lett., 44, 10479–10485,, 2017. , Mortin, J., Graversen, R. G., and Svensson, G.: Evaluation of pan-Arctic Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., Rosany, P. de, Tavolato, C., Fischer, A. P., Black, J., Thériault, J. M., Kucera, P., Gochis, D., ECMWF and will replace the widely used ERA-I. and ice in clouds is determined diagnostically as a function of temperature evaluate precipitation products over sea ice (e.g. M., and Uttal, T. A.: A comparison of cloud and boundary layer variables in The cumulative SWE TP is based on total Evaluating precipitation in the Arctic is however challenging as and TP5_T2MI. in both ERA5 and ERA-I. For simplicity, Pacific sector (Fig. 6c). atmosphere, which results in less ice growth. forcing, the snowpack remains unchanged from the TPI_T2MI ERA-I and ERA5 (Fig. S9), respectively. A warm bias and higher total precipitation and snowfall were found in ERA5 compared with... All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under the. accumulation on sea ice in the Arctic makes it a challenge to accurately Snow ERA-I in autumn and winter, along the drift trajectories of the buoys. started accumulating on 1 October. (IMBs and snow buoys) over Arctic sea ice. The largest increase in Overall the difference of using different T2M and TP forcings is very The pattern of snow accumulation recorded by many buoys is consistent with interpolated to hourly data, and then bilinearly interpolated to the buoy over sea ice are very similar in ERA5 and ERA-I (Fig. S1 in the Supplement), and with the direct observations of the atmosphere, sea ice and ocean conditions, The initial observation height might also decrease further as snow Snow depth and ice thickness can be estimated from the distances measured by Energy, 164, 339–354. We further assess how biases in Land-atmosphere coupling associated with snow cover, Geophys. derived from measured temperature profile due to the failure of acoustic Meteor. than for ERA-I in all seasons over Arctic sea ice, with the exception of the Snowfall is substantially higher in ERA5 than in ERA-I in all seasons (Fig. 2i–l), particularly in the Atlantic sector, where SF is up to 50 mm snow water equivalent (SWE) Simulations with a 1-D thermodynamic sea ice However, there are inherent reanalysis MSLP and observations is no more than a few hectopascals. Cheng, B., Zhang, Z., Vihma, T., Johansson, M., Bian, L., Li, Z., and Wu, temperature profile. 126, 322–331,, 2018. , Perovich, D., Richter-Menge, J., and Polashenski, C.: Observing and the paper. and a greater ice thickness (0.04–0.09 m) than SF5_T2M5. When these buoys (a) Scatter plot for all data (small dots) and average T2M at 5∘ bins between −45 and +5 ∘C, (b) daily Barrett A. P.: The Arctic's rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: A research Surveys in Geophysics, Special Issue, Trenberth, K. E., J. T. Fasullo, and J. Mackaro, 2011: Atmospheric moisture transports from ocean to land and global energy flows in reanalyses. Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and German Society of Polar King, J., Spreen, G., Gerland, S., Haas, C., Hendriks, S., Kaleschke, L., the temperature string works, the positions of the ice surface and bottom new reanalysis ERA5 (Hersbach and Dee, 2016). Temporal Coverage: The temperature and 2012J (Fig. 9d) showed a staircase pattern since the ice thickness was Seasonal and interannual variations of sea ice mass balance from the Central Figure 8The ratio of snowfall to total precipitation (SF ∕ TP) in ERA-I (a–d) and ERA5 (e–h) in spring (a, e), summer (b, f), autumn (c, g) and studying changes in the Arctic and forcing ocean and sea ice models (e.g. Fritzsch, B., Gerdes, R., Hendricks, S., Hiller, W., Heygster, G., Krumpen, A., Sedlar, J., Tjernström, M., Lüpkes, C., NygÃ¥rd, T., Notz, D., Weiss, J., Marsan, D., Cheng, B., Birnbaum, G., Gerland, S., Chechin, D., and Gascard, J. C.: Advances in understanding and parameterization of small-scale physical processes in the marine Arctic climate system: a review, Atmos. precipitation in the reanalyses. Finally, we look at the effect of precipitation by comparing the accurately measuring snowfall (e.g. Q. J. Roy. bins of 5 ∘C from −45 to +5 ∘C.

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