[6] The satellite's name, "quick as lightning", is in reference to the speed with which is passes through the perigee. the right ascensions of the ascending nodes should be separated with 120°. Dr. T.S. From 1980s they were used by the military, and by the 1990s they were operated in the same manner as the Molniya 1 satellites. Molniya orbits are named after a series of Soviet/Russian Molniya communications satellites which have been using this type of orbit since the mid 1960s. Orbital perturbation analysis (spacecraft), Parameters - Longitude Of The Asending Node, Parameters - Horizontal Coordinate System. In the early 1960s, when Europe and America was establishing geostationary communication satellites, the Russians found these orbits unsuitable. To broadcast to these latitudes from a geostationary orbit (above the Earth's equator) would require considerable power due to the low elevation angles. The Earth com­pletes half a ro­ta­tion in … As the apogee altitude is as high as 40,000 km, it will therefore, for a considerable period around apogee, have an excellent visibility from the Northern Hemisphere, from the Russian Federation but also from northern Europe, Greenland and Canada. [9], They had a lifespan of approximately 1.5 years, as their orbits were disrupted by perturbations, as well as deteriorating solar arrays and they had to be constantly replaced. The spacecraft is at an altitude of 24,043 km over the point 87.35° E Kelso [TS.Kelso@celestrak.com] Follow CelesTrak on Twitter @TSKelso Last … 47.04° N. Figure 7: View of the Earth from the apogee of a Molniya orbit under This page was last modified on 28 December 2015, at 22:54. The plane of the figure is the Inclination: 62.8 degrees 4. Endeavour di papan peluncu... Space Shuttle Challenger Molniya orbits are named after a series of Soviet/Russian Molniya communications satellites which have been using this type of orbit since the mid-1960s. [2], Originally called the Molniya-2M, their development began in 1972, with launches from 1974. Note that the two spacecraft at the time of switch-over are separated about 1500 km, so that the ground stations only have to move the antennas a few degrees to acquire the new spacecraft. [11], The early Molniya-1 satellites were designed for television, telegraph and telephone across Russa,[9] but they were also fitted with cameras used for weather monitoring, and possibly for assessing clear areas for Zenit spy satellites. The views of the Earth from these three points are displayed in figures 3–8. To maximise the dwell time the eccentricity, the differences in altitudes of the apogee and perigee, had to be large. Argument of perigee: 280 degrees 5. The next attempt was on 22 August 1964 and reached orbit successfully, but the parabolic communications antennas did not properly deploy due to a design flaw in the release mechanism. Development was difficult because the final satellite bus was unpressurized, changing their selection of radios. The same orbits, with slight adjustments, were also used by some Soviet spy satellites, with the apogee point over the continental United States. Publicly referred to as Kosmos 41, it nonetheless operated for nine months. [12] The system was operational by 1967, with the construction of the Orbita groundstations. [9] By 30 May 1966, the third Molniya 1 had taken the first images of the whole Earth in history. In the operational part of the orbit from apogee −3 hours to apogee +3 hours the satellite is north of 55.5° N (latitude of for example central Scotland, Orbital perturbation analysis (spacecraft), JAVA applet animating the orbit of a satellite, Real time satellite tracking for a typical Molniya satellite, illustration of the communication geometry provided by satellites in 12-hour Molniya orbits, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Molniya_orbit&oldid=1039124, Articles lacking in-text citations from December 2011, Articles containing Russian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. It is necessary to have at least three spacecraft if permanent high elevation coverage is needed for a large area like the whole of Russia where some parts are as far south as 45° N. If three spacecraft are used, each spacecraft is active for periods of eight hours per orbit centered at apogee as illustrated in figure 9. A Molniya orbit (Russian: Молния; IPA: [ˈmolnʲɪjə] ( listen), "Lightning") is a type of highly elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63.4 degrees, an argument of perigee of −90 degrees and an orbital period of one half of a sidereal day. Additionally geostationary satellites give poor coverage in polar regions, which consists of a large portion of Russian territory. Discovery pada Oktober 200... NASA [19], This article is about the satellite system. These were in turn replaced by the Molniya-3 design. A green line corresponds to service for Asia and Europe with the visibility of figures 3–5. Orbiter Instrument Training - Descend from orbit t... Orbiter Instrument Training - Docking to Station, Orbiter Instrument Training - Synchronize to Target. The primary use of the Molniya orbit was for the communications satellite series of the same name. After two launch failures in 1964, the first successful satellite to use this orbit was Molniya 1-01 launched on April 23, 1965. Molniya orbit diberi nama setelah serangkaian satelit komunikasi Soviet / Rusia Molniya yang telah menggunakan jenis orbit ini sejak pertengahan 1960-an. [18] There are currently 38 Molniya satellites left in orbit. orbit under the assumption that the longitude of the apogee is 90° E. To avoid this expenditure of fuel, the Molniya orbit uses an inclination of 63.4°, for which these perturbations are zero. Klik gambar untuk memperbesar. The rotational period of the Earth relative to the node (i.e. Although geostationary orbits are useful for observing the continental United States, Soviet sensor technology sometimes required high-contrast observing angles which could only be achieved from higher latitudes. Image credit: elfindingpolaris Bintang-bintang hampir selalu menghias... Warna-warna Asli Planet di Tata Surya Planet-planet di tata surya kita. [7] As a result, OKB-1 sought a less energy-consuming orbit. [3], There were 164 Molniya satellites launched, all in Molniya orbits with the exception of Molniya 1S which was launched into geostationary orbit for testing purposes. the Earth from these three points are displayed in figures 3–8. ), so that even if the apogee started near the north pole, it would gradually move unless constantly corrected with station-keeping thruster burns. Its replacement, the Molniya-2, provided both military and civilian broadcasting, and was used to create the Orbita television network, spanning the Soviet Union. orbit under the assumption that the longitude of the apogee is 90° E. Period: 718 minutes It is nec­es­sary to have at least three space­craft if per­ma­nent high el­e­va­tion cov­er­age is needed for a large area like the whole of Rus­sia where some parts are as far south as 45° N. If three space­craft are used, each space­craft is ac­tive for pe­ri­ods of eight hours per orbit cen­tered at apogeeas il­lus­trated in fig­ure 9. Subsequently, it is highly eccentric (thin ellipse) and has a perigee of just 400km and an apogee of 40000km. orbit. {\displaystyle \omega } Three satellites placed at different phases of the same Molniya orbit are enough to provide uninterrupted service to the regions in the north. N. Figure 9: A constellation of three Molniya spacecraft providing service for the Northern hemisphere. Groundtrack of Molniya orbit. Image credit: NASA Jika ki... Dibawah ini adalah sejumlah Link dari situs Luar Angkasa : Astronomer, Astronaut in the future, Games Space PLayer. Molniya orbit is a highly elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63.4 degrees, an argument of perigee of -90 degrees and an orbital period of one half of a sidereal day. The first launch took place on 4 June 1964 and ended in failure when the 8K78 booster core stage lost thrust 287 seconds into launch due to a jammed servo motor. So Enjoy Visit My Blog! Semi-major axis: 26600 km 2. The first operational satellite, Molniya 1-1, was successfully launched on 23 April 1965. [6] They were limited in the amount of rocket power available and it is extremely energy intensive to both launch a satellite to 40,000 km, and change its inclination to be over the equator, especially when launched from Russia. At apogee, the green illumination zone applies, three hours before or after apogee, the red zone applies, four hours before or after apogee, the blue zone applies. Program Apollo The Earth completes half a rotation in 12 hours, so the apogees of successive Molniya orbits will alternate between one half of the northern hemisphere and the other half. A satellite in a Molniya orbit is better suited to communications in these regions because it looks directly down on them. For a Molniya orbit, the inclination is selected such that as given by the formula above is zero but , as given by the other equation, will be −0.0742° per orbit. After two launch failures in 1964, the first successful satellite to use this orbit was Molniya 1-01 launched on April 23, 1965.

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